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|Title:||Mechanisms of nausea and vomiting: Current knowledge and recent advances in intracellular emetic signaling systems||Autores:||Zhong, W.
Darmani, N. A.
|Researchers (UNIBE):||Shahbaz, Omar||Affiliations:||Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud||Research area:||Ciencias de la Salud||Keywords:||Ca2+; G-protein coupled receptors; Brainstem; Emesis; Nausea; Signaling pathway; The gastrointestinal tract; Vomiting||Issue Date:||2021||Publisher:||MDPI Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute||Source:||International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(11), 5797||Journal:||International Journal of Molecular Sciences||Volume:||22||Issue:||11||Start page:||5797||Abstract:||
Nausea and vomiting are common gastrointestinal complaints that can be triggered by diverse emetic stimuli through central and/or peripheral nervous systems. Both nausea and vomiting are considered as defense mechanisms when threatening toxins/drugs/bacteria/viruses/fungi enter the body either via the enteral (e.g., the gastrointestinal tract) or parenteral routes, including the blood, skin, and respiratory systems. While vomiting is the act of forceful removal of gastrointestinal contents, nausea is believed to be a subjective sensation that is more difficult to study in nonhuman species. In this review, the authors discuss the anatomical structures, neurotransmitters/mediators, and corresponding receptors, as well as intracellular emetic signaling pathways involved in the processes of nausea and vomiting in diverse animal models as well as humans. While blockade of emetic receptors in the prevention of vomiting is fairly well understood, the potential of new classes of antiemetics altering postreceptor signal transduction mechanisms is currently evolving, which is also reviewed. Finally, future directions within the field will be discussed in terms of important questions that remain to be resolved and advances in technology that may help provide potential answers.
|Appears in Collections:||Publicaciones de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud|
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