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Title: Iteration of partially specified target matrices: Application to the bi-factor case
Autores: Abad, F. J.
García-Garzón, E.
Garrido, Luis Eduardo
Barrada, J. R.
Researchers (UNIBE): Garrido, Luis Eduardo 
Affiliations: Decanato de Investigación e Innovación (DII) 
Research area: Ciencias de la Salud
Keywords: Bi-factor rotation; Exploratory factor analysis; Schmid-Leiman; Target rotation
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Source: Multivariate Behavioral Research, 52(4), 416-429
Journal: Multivariate Behavioral Research 
Volume: 52
Issue: 4
Start page: 416
End page: 429
The current study proposes a new bi-factor rotation method, Schmid-Leiman with iterative target rotation (SLi), based on the iteration of partially specified target matrices and an initial target constructed from a Schmid-Leiman (SL) orthogonalization. SLi was expected to ameliorate some of the limitations of the previously presented SL bi-factor rotations, SL and SL with target rotation (SLt), when the factor structure either includes cross-loadings, near-zero loadings, or both. A Monte Carlo simulation was carried out to test the performance of SLi, SL, SLt, and the two analytic bi-factor rotations, bi-quartimin and bi-geomin. The results revealed that SLi accurately recovered the bi-factor structures across the majority of the conditions, and generally outperformed the other rotation methods. SLi provided the biggest improvements over SL and SLt when the bi-factor structures contained cross-loadings and pure indicators of the general factor. Additionally, SLi was superior to bi-quartimin and bi-geomin, which performed inconsistently across the types of factor structures evaluated. No method produced a good recovery of the bi-factor structures when small samples (N = 200) were combined with low factor loadings (0.30-0.50) in the specific factors. Thus, it is recommended that larger samples of at least 500 observations be obtained.
DOI: 10.1080/00273171.2017.1301244
Appears in Collections:Publicaciones del DII-UNIBE
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